Profiles of Caregiver-Reported Executive Function in Children with Down Syndrome.

Van Deusen, KaylynPrince, Mark AEsbensen, Anna JEdgin, Jamie OSchworer, Emily KThurman, Angela JohnPatel, Lina RDaunhauer, Lisa AFidler, Deborah J


Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at risk for challenges with aspects of executive function (EF). The current study explores whether heterogeneity in EF profiles can be detected within a sample of children with DS. Participants were 69 children with DS, ages 3-10 years (M = 6.23, SD = 1.91). T-scores from a caregiver-report measure of executive function were modeled using latent profile analysis, and auxiliary analyses examined the association between demographic and biomedical factors and probability of profile membership. The two-profile solution was the best fit for the sample, with a profile that involved elevated scores in working memory only ("Working Memory Only" profile; 43% of sample) and a "Multi-Domain" profile that involved elevated scores in planning, inhibition, and working memory (57%). The presence of congenital heart defects was associated with a higher probability of assignment to the Multi-Domain profile. Findings from this study contribute to the characterization of heterogeneous outcomes associated with DS.


Heart Defects, Congenital