Alldred, Melissa JMartini, Alessandra CPatterson, DavidHendrix, JamesGranholm, Ann-Charlotte
Down syndrome (DS) is a form of accelerated aging, and therefore it is important to highlight the DS population in aging-related research. This research review serves to highlight age-related conditions in DS, but also to provide novel areas of study that will help research move forward in this important field.
Down syndrome (DS) is a form of accelerated aging, and people with DS are highly prone to aging-related conditions that include vascular and neurological disorders. Due to the overexpression of several genes on Chromosome 21, for example genes encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and some of the interferon receptors, those with DS exhibit significant accumulation of amyloid, phospho-tau, oxidative stress, neuronal loss, and neuroinflammation in the brain as they age. In this review, we will summarize the major strides in this research field that have been made in the last few decades, as well as discuss where we are now, and which research areas are considered essential for the field in the future. We examine the scientific history of DS bridging these milestones in research to current efforts in the field. We extrapolate on comorbidities associated with this phenotype and highlight clinical networks in the USA and Europe pursuing clinical research, concluding with funding efforts and recent recommendations to the NIH regarding DS research.
Alzheimer Disease, Nervous System Diseases